The social and political evolution brought about by globalization and immigration (from countries outside Europe and between European countries) has produced a socio-cultural picture that differs greatly from the one reflecting European reality merely forty years ago. Ethnic, religious and cultural differences have created problems of coexistence and marginalization. Faced with these situations, public authorities must take the necessary measures to mitigate the effects of inequality and discrimination.
The main goals pursued by public authorities in this regard are doubtless the integration of different communities and the acknowledgement and protection of fundamental rights. Familiarity with the EU Member States policies related to these issues, followed by the analysis of the different policy systems, including that of the EU itself, are crucial to having a proper understanding of the legal map within the EU. One of the most important challenges the EU is currently facing is integrating the different communities that make up a plural, multi-faceted European cultural reality. Theoretical knowledge and practical analysis of the above-mentioned systems of public policy are intended to aid students to approach European facts more accurately.